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Gillian Eastwood

Assistant Professor
  • Vector-Borne Disease Ecology

The Eastwood Lab is not taking on further graduate students at this time


The Eastwood laboratory aims to investigate the complex interactions between disease vectors, pathogens, wild or domestic animal hosts, and their environmental using a One Health lens.

This takes a key focus on the transmission cycles of arboviruses and the emergence of infectious zoonotic diseases.

Learn more by visiting the Eastwood laboratory website found here

Research Interests

Current research interests include the host and vector ecology of emerging arboviruses; range expansion of invasive mosquito and tick species; the influence of tropical ecosystem degradation on vector species diversity and pathogen dynamics.


We have projects on

·               La Crosse virus (lineage III public health risk of an emerging mosquito-borne virus in the Northeast USA)

·               Ecology of emerging tick-borne viruses (Heartland, Bourbon, and Powassan viruses) in Virginia

·               Vector communities and host-feeding in Western Virginia

·               Co-infection of tick-borne agents.

·               Mosquito species diversity and arbovirus circulation in The Gambia

·               Drivers of emerging infectious disease, and impact of ecosystem changes such as deforestation.

Areas of Expertise

Field- and laboratory-based studies of vector-borne disease ecology.  Enzootic transmission cycles of mosquito- and tick-borne pathogens. Vector ecology and surveillance. Serological surveillance.  ACL3/BSL3 containment. Arboviral vector competency and transmission analysis. Ecological drivers of emerging infectious disease.


2012 Ph.D., Disease and Conservation Ecology, University of Leeds and the Zoological Society London, UK

2006 M.Res., Environmental Biology, University of St. Andrews, Scotland, UK

Work Experience

2018 - Present Assistant Professor, Vector-borne Disease Ecology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, USA

2017 - 2018 Postdoctoral Fellow, Medical Entomology, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, USA

2015 - 2017 Postdoctoral Fellow, Hantavirus Ecology, University of Tennessee - Knoxville, USA

2013 - 2015 Postdoctoral Fellow, Enzootic arbovirus emergence, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, USA (based with Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya)


ENT-3264/BIOL-3264  - Medical and Veterinary Entomology Laboratory sections

Interfaces of Global Change [IGEP] graduate fellows education – Global change case study

Past Teaching

ENT 5004 – Graduate seminar, peer review and critical analysis

ENT 6004 – Field Entomology Skills - incorporating experiential learning with both field and lab-based elements


NCBI Bibliography here.

  • Okello I, Nzalawahe J, Mafie E, Eastwood G (2024) Seasonal variation in tsetse fly apparent density and Trypanosoma spp. infection rate and occurrence of drug-resistant trypanosomes in Lambwe, Kenya. Parasitol Res 123, 46.
  • [book chapter]: Loaiza, JR, Eastwood, G., & Chaves Sanabria, L. F. (2024). "Chapter 8 Vector control and surveillance under lockdown: COVID-19 and future pandemics". In Planetary health approaches to understand and control vector-borne diseases. Leiden, The Netherlands: Wageningen Academic.
  • Faw L, Riley J, Eastwood G (2023) La Crosse Virus Circulation in Virginia, Assessed Via Serosurveillence in Wildlife Species. Infectious Disease Reports. 15(4): 360-369. 10.3390/idr15040036
  • Foster JE, López K, Eastwood G, Guzman H, Carrington CVF, Tesh RB, Auguste AJ (2023) ‘Phylogenetic characterization of Orthobunyaviruses isolated from Trinidad shows evidence of natural reassortment’. Virus Genes: 59, 473-478.
  • Foley N, Balamurali S, Lampman J, Gangloff-Kaufman J, Eastwood GCumbie AN, Mader EM, Harrington, LC (2023) New York State Tick Blitz: Harnessing Community-Based Science to Understand Range Expansion of Ticks. Journal of Medical EntomologyJournal of Medical Entomology: 60(4), 708–717.
  • [book chapter]:  Winter SN, Eastwood G, Barrios-Izás MA (2023) Drugs and Biodiversity Loss: Narcotraffic-Linked Landscape Change in Guatemala. In. Forest Degradation Under Global Change. IntechOpen. Doi: 10.5772/intechopen.107152.
  • Okello I, Mafie E, Nzalawahe J, Eastwood G, Mboera LEG, Hakizimana JN, Ogola K. Trypanosoma Congolense Resistant to Trypanocidal Drugs Homidium and Diminazene and their Molecular Characterization in Lambwe, Kenya. Acta Parasitol. 2022 Nov 28;. doi: 10.1007/s11686-022-00640-3.  PubMed PMID: 36441294.
  • Okello I, Mafie E, Eastwood G, Nzalawahe J, Mboera LEG, Onyoyo S. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of African Animal Trypanosomiasis in Cattle in Lambwe, Kenya. J Parasitol Res. 2022;2022:5984376. doi: 10.1155/2022/5984376. eCollection 2022. PubMed PMID: 35872666
  • Cumbie AN, Whitlow AM, Arneson A, Du Z, Eastwood GThe Distribution, Seasonal Abundance, and Environmental Factors Contributing to the Presence of the Asian Longhorned Tick (Haemaphysalis longicornis, Acari: Ixodidae) in Central Appalachian Virginia. J Med Entomol. 2022 Jul 13;59(4):1443-1450. doi: 10.1093/jme/tjac067. PubMed PMID: 35640632.
  • Okello I, Mafie E, Eastwood G, Nzalawahe J, Mboera LEG. African Animal Trypanosomiasis: A Systematic Review on Prevalence, Risk Factors and Drug Resistance in Sub-Saharan Africa. J Med Entomol. 2022 Jul 13;59(4):1099-1143. doi: 10.1093/jme/tjac018. PubMed PMID: 35579072.​
  • Cumbie AN, Trimble RN, Eastwood G (2022) Pathogen Spillover to an Invasive Tick Species: First Detection of Bourbon Virus in Haemaphysalis longicornis in the United States. Pathogens 11(454)
  • Whitlow AM, Cumbie AN, Eastwood G (2022) Pathogen prevalence in Amblyomma americanum and Ixodes scapularis ticks from Central Appalachian Virginia, USA. Journal of Vector Ecology 47(1): 51-60
  • Cumbie AN, Whitlow AM, Eastwood G (2021) First Evidence of Powassan Virus (Flaviviridae) in Ixodes scapularis in Appalachian Virginia, USA.
    American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene 103(3): 905-908
  • Whitlow AM, Schürch R, Mullins D, Eastwood G (2021) The Influence of Southwestern Virginia Environmental Conditions on the Potential Ability of Haemaphysalis longicornis, Amblyomma americanum, and Amblyomma maculatum to Overwinter in the Region. Insects 12(11):1000.
  • Wilson SN, Lopez K, Coutermash-Ott S, Auguste DI, Porier DL, Armstrong PM, Andreadis TG, Eastwood G, Auguste AJ (2021) La Crosse Virus Shows Strain-Specific Differences in Pathogenesis. Pathogens 1, 4.
  • Camp JV, …  , Williams EP, Eastwood G, Sawyer AM, Jonsson CB (2021) Mixed Effects of Habitat Degradation and Resources on Hantaviruses in Sympatric Wild Rodent Reservoirs within a Neotropical Forest. Viruses 13, 85.
  • Mbuthia P, Murungi E, Eastwood G, … Jeneby M (2021) Potentially zoonotic gastrointestinal nematodes co‐infecting free ranging non‐human primates in Kenyan urban centres. Vet Med Sci. 00: 1– 11.
  • Gloria-Soria A, Payne AF, … , Eastwood G, Ciota AT, Kramer LD, Armstrong PM (2020) Vector competence of Aedes albopictus populations from the Northeastern United States for chikungunya, dengue, and Zika Viruses. Am J Trop Med Hyg. doi: https://10.4269/ajtmh.20-0874.
  • Eastwood G., Shepard JJ, Misencik MJ, Andreadis TG, Armstrong PM (2020). Local persistence of novel regional variants of La Crosse virus in the Northeast USA. Parasites & Vectors 13, 569.
  • Eastwood G, Sang RC, Lutomiah J, Tunge PK, Weaver SC. (2020) Sylvatic mosquito diversity in Kenya—Considering enzootic ecology of arboviruses in an era of deforestation. Insects . 11(6):342. doi:10.3390/insects1106034
  • Eastwood, G., Donnellycolt, A. K., Shepard, J. J., Misencik, M. J., Bedoukian, R., Cole, L., Armstrong, P.M., Andreadis, T. G. (2019). Evaluation of Novel Trapping Lures for Monitoring Exotic and Native Container-Inhabiting Aedes spp. (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes. Journal of Medical Entomology. doi:10.1093/jme/tjz200
  • Kache, P. A., Eastwood, G., Collins-Palmer, K., Katz, M., Falco, R. C., Bajwa, W. I., . . . Diuk-Wasser, M. A. (2019). Environmental Determinants of Aedes albopictus Abundance at a Northern Limit of Its Range in the United States. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.19-0244
  • Eastwood, G., Cunningham, A. A., Kramer, L. D., & Goodman, S. J. (2019). The vector ecology of introduced Culex quinquefasciatus populations, and implications for future risk of West Nile virus emergence in the Galapagos archipelago. Medical and Veterinary Entomology33(1), 44-55. doi:10.1111/mve.12329
  • Eastwood, G., Camp, J., Chu, Y. K., Sawyer, A. M., Owen, R. D., Cao, X., . . . Jonsson, C. B. (2018). Habitat, species richness and hantaviruses of sigmodontine rodents within the Interior Atlantic Forest, Paraguay. PLOS One13(8), 20 pages. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0201307
  • Loaiza, J. R., Dutari, L. C., Rovira, J. R., Sanjur, O. I., Laporta, G. Z., Eastwood, G . . . Pongsiri, M. (2017). Disturbance and mosquito diversity in the lowland tropical rainforest of central Panama. Scientific Reports7, 13 pages. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-07476-2
  • Eastwood, G., Sang, R. C., Guerbois, M., Taracha, E. L. N., & Weaver, S. C. (2017). Enzootic Circulation of Chikungunya Virus in East Africa: Serological Evidence in Non-human Kenyan Primates. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene97(5), 1399-1404. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.17-0126
  • Contreras, M., Eastwood, G., Guzman, H., Popov, V., Savit, C., . . . Walker, P. J. (2017). Almendravirus: A Proposed New Genus of Rhabdoviruses Isolated from Mosquitoes in Tropical Regions of the Americas. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene96(1), 100-109. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.16-0403
  • Ladner, J. T., Wiley, M. R., Beitzel, B., Auguste, A. J., Dupuis, A. P., Eastwood, G., . . . Palacios, G. (2016). A Multicomponent Animal Virus Isolated from Mosquitoes. Cell Host & Microbe20(3), 357-367. doi:10.1016/j.chom.2016.07.011
  • Pedersen, K., Marks, D. R., Wang, E., Eastwood, G., Weaver, S. C., Goldstein, S. M., . . . DeLiberto, T. J. (2016). Widespread Detection of Antibodies to Eastern Equine Encephalitis, West Nile, St. Louis Encephalitis, and Turlock Viruses in Various Species of Wild Birds from Across the United States. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene95(1), 206-211. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.15-0840
  • Eastwood, G., Loaiza, J. R., Pongsiri, M. J., Sanjur, O. I., Pecor, J. E., Auguste, A. J., & Kramer, L. D. (2016). Enzootic Arbovirus Surveillance in Forest Habitat and Phylogenetic Characterization of Novel Isolates of Gamboa Virus in Panama. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene94(4), 786-793. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.15-0445
  • Shi, M., Lin, X. -D., Vasilakis, N., Tian, J. -H., Eastwood, G, . . . Chen, X. (2016). Divergent Viruses Discovered in Arthropods and Vertebrates Revise the Evolutionary History of the Flaviviridae and Related Viruses. Journal of Virology90(2), 659-669. doi:10.1128/JVI.02036-15
  • Eastwood, G., Goodman, S. J., Hilgert, N., Cruz, M., Kramer, L. D., & Cunningham, A. A. (2014). Using Avian Surveillance in Ecuador to Assess the Imminence of West Nile Virus Incursion to Galapagos. Ecohealth11(1), 53-62. doi:10.1007/s10393-014-0911-5
  • Eastwood, G., Goodman, S. J., Cunningham, A. A., & Kramer, L. D. (2013). Aedes Taeniorhynchus Vectorial Capacity Informs A Pre-Emptive Assessment Of West Nile Virus Establishment In Galapagos. Scientific reports3, 8 pages. doi:10.1038/srep01519

Professional Societies & Affiliations

VT Global Change Center [GCC]

VT’s Center for Emerging, Zoonotic, and Arthropod-borne Pathogens [CeZAP]

CDC Northeast Regional Center for Excellence in Vector-Borne Diseases [NEVBD]

American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Member

American Committee for Arthropod borne viruses, Member

British Ecological Society, Member

Wildlife Disease Association, Member

Scholarships and Awards

Robert E. Shope International Fellowship in Infectious Diseases, ASTMH (2012)

McLaughlin Postdoctoral Fellowship, UTMB (2013-2015)

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Travel Award to attend and present at the ASTMH 64th annual meeting (2015)

Center for Wildlife Health Travel Award, University of Tennessee (2016)

McColgan Endowment Postdoctoral Fellowship Award - Northeastern Mosquito Control Association (2017)

CALS Global Faculty Partnership Award, Virginia Tech (2019) – to visit London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine

CALS Global Opportunity Initiative, Virginia Tech (2019) – for capacity building and network development in East Africa

VCE Extension Publications

  • Faw LR, Eastwood G (2023) Extension Fact Sheet: Mosquito-borne Arboviruses in Virginia. Virginia Cooperative Extension: ENTO-535
  • Eastwood G, Cumbie AN (2022) Riesgo de enfermedades transmitidas por garrapatas en Virginia. Virginia Cooperative Extension Fact Sheet (Español): ENTO-510
  • Cumbie AN, Eastwood G (2022) Extension Fact Sheet: Tick-borne Diseases in Virginia. Virginia Cooperative Extension: ENTO-504
  • Eastwood G, Garba A (2023) Emerging Tick-borne viruses tri-fold infographic: ENTO-509
  • Garba A, Eastwood G (2022) Extension Fact Sheet: Emerging Tick-Borne Arboviruses: Powassan virus, Heartland virus, and Bourbon virus. Virginia Cooperative Extension: ENTO-491


Outreach Activities (mosquito/tick and vectored-disease education)

  • 4-H Congress workshops
  • Black College Institute events
  • STEM-talks
  • Local Scout groups
  • Earth Day events
  • Hokie BugFest